HISTORY 201-AF [Thursday, April 09, 2020, 12Noon Sharp]
Skyline College Sharp = NO Late Submissions
James I. Wong Sharp = NO Excuses
These Exam Questions Are Strictly From the Textbook, Lecture Outlines, and Class Lectures Only. Carefully Spell and Type Your Answers! Each Question (65) Is Worth Two (2) Points = 130 Total Points!!!
Chapters 4 – 10 Identifications
01. What was the theory that all British subjects were represented in Parliament,
whether they had elected representatives in that body or not? American colonists
rejected this theory.
02. What was the theory that American colonists argued in representation had regarding
the right to govern and tax the colonists?
03. What was the 1754–63 conflict between Britain and France that ended with British
domination of North America, though its high expense laid the foundation for conflict
that would lead to the American Revolution?
04. What was the common appellation for the North American component of the
aforementioned (#03) (1756-1763) conflict between Britain and France?
05. What term describes a legislature with two houses or chambers?
06. What term was used to describe the association of states under the first American
constitution, and constituted only a weak political bond?
07. What term referred to a community’s armed force, made up primarily of ordinary
citizens rather than professional soldiers?
08. Colonists employed what the two (2) principal strategies of boycotts?
10. What was the September 1774 gathering of colonial delegates in Philadelphia to
discuss the crisis precipitated by the Coercive Acts, resulting in a declaration of
rights and an agreement to impose a limited boycott of trade with Britain?
11. From our class lectures, What word is defined as being unable to be taken away
from or given away by the possessor?
12. What document containing philosophical principles and a list of grievances
that declared separation from Britain was adopted by the Second Continental
Congress on July 4, 1776, ending a period of intense debate with moderates
still hoping to reconcile with Britain?
13. What was a multistage battle in New York that ended with the decisive defeat
and surrender of British General John Burgoyne on October 17, 1777,
whereupon France was convinced by this victory to throw its official support
to the Americans?
14. What legislative body governed the United States from May 1775 through the
Revolutionary War’s duration, establishing an army, creating its own money,
and declaring independence once all hope for a peaceful reconciliation with
Britain was gone?
15. What October 1781 battle sealed American victory in the Revolutionary War.
whereby American troops and a French fleet trapped the British army under
the command of General Charles Cornwallis in Virginia.
16. What agreement on September 3, 1783, ended the Revolutionary War,
acknowledging America’s independence, setting its boundaries, and
promising the quick withdrawal of British troops from American soil?
However, it failed to recognize Indians as players in the conflict.
17. What appellation was attached to colonists who remained loyal to Britain
during the Revolutionary War, probably numbering around 1/5 of the
population in 1776?
18. What was the pamphlet written by Thomas Paine in 1776 that laid out the
case for independence, whereupon, Paine rejected monarchy, advocating its
replacement with republican government based on the consent of the
people? The pamphlet influenced public opinion throughout the colonies.
19. In effect from 1781 to 1788, what document defined the Union as a
confederation of equal states with no executive, limited powers, and existing
primarily to foster a common defense.
20. What was the bogus coup threatened by Continental army officers and
congressional leaders in 1782–83, when they thought the forceful demand for
military back pay and pensions would create pressure for stronger taxation
powers? General Washington defused the threat.
21. Originally the term for the supporters of the ratification of the U.S.
Constitution in 1787–88. In the 1790s, what appellation became the name for
one of the two dominant political groups that emerged during that decade. In
the 1790s, leaders of this group supported Britain in foreign policy and
commercial interests at home? The group included George Washington,
Alexander Hamilton, and John Adams.
22. Which 1787 land act established a three-stage process by which settled
territories would become states, and also banned slavery in the Northwest
23. What was James Madison’s plan, presented at the opening of the
Constitutional Convention, outlining a powerful 3-branch government, with
representation in both congressional houses tied to population? Madison’s
idea eclipsed the voice of small states in national government.
24. Drafted by delegates from small states to the Constitutional Convention,
which plan retained the Articles of Confederation’s single-house congress
with 1 vote per state?
25. Which social philosophy that embraced representative institutions, as
opposed to monarchy, a citizenry attuned to civic values above private
interests, and a virtuous community in which individuals work to promote the
26. Under the Constitution of the United States, who has primary responsibility
for the conduct of foreign affairs?
27. From class lectures, whose thesis proffered that the Constitutional delegates
were members of an econmic elite?
28. What descriptive appellation has been given to the years of the
Confederation Government (1781-1787)?
29. According to the Constitution, which part of the new government would be
elected directly by the people?
30. What was the farmer-led 1786–87 uprising centered in western
Massachusetts, whereby dissidents protested the taxation policies of the
eastern elites who controlled the state’s government? The uprising caused
leaders throughout the country to worry about the confederation’s ability to
handle civil disorder.
31. Fearing that a powerful and distant central government would be out of touch
with citizens’ needs, what group opposed ratification of the Constitution,
complaining that the document also failed to guarantee individual liberties in
a Bill of Rights?
32. What were the1798 laws passed to suppress political dissent; believed by
many to violate the Bills of Rights?
33. What 1797 incident saw American negotiators in France rebuffed for refusing
to pay a substantial bribe led the United States into an undeclared war with
France, known as the Quasi-War, and which intensified antagonism between
Federalists and Republicans?
34. What July 1794 uprising by farmers in western Pennsylvania came in
response to enforcement of an unpopular excise tax? The federal
government responded with a military presence that caused dissidents to
disperse before blood was shed.
35. What were the two (2) 1798 resolutions condemning the Alien and Sedition
Acts and testing the idea that state legislatures could judge the
constitutionality of federal laws and nullify them?
36. What appellation is given to the first 10 amendments to the Constitution,
officially ratified by 1791 The 1st through 8th deal with individual liberties; the
9th and 10th concern the boundary between federal and state authority.
37. What was the 1803 purchase of French territory west of the Mississippi River
that stretched from the Gulf of Mexico to Canada? The purchase nearly
doubled the size of the United States and opened the way for future
American expansion west.
38. What appellation referred to young men, newly-elected to the Congress of
1811 who were eager for war against Britain in order to end impressments,
fight Indians, and expand into neighboring British territory? Leaders included
Henry Clay of Kentucky and John C. Calhoun of South Carolina.
39. Which 1803 US Supreme Court case established the concept of judicial
review in finding that parts of the Judiciary Act of 1789 that were in conflict
with the US Constitution, whereupon the US Supreme Court assumed legal
authority to overrule acts of other branches of the government?
40. What term referred to the British naval practice of seizing sailors on American
ships under the claim they were deserters from the British navy? Some
2,500 British and American men were taken by force into service, a
grievance that helped propel the United States to declare war on Britain.
41. What group constituted Thomas Jefferson’s “backbone of democracy”?
42. Which transportation system was finished in 1825, covering 350 miles
between Albany and Buffalo and linking the port of New York City with the
entire Great Lakes region. It turned New York City into the country’s premier
43. What were the manufacturing sites constructed along the Merrimack River in
Massachusetts that pioneered the extensive use of female laborers? By
1836, they employed more than five thousand young women, living in
boardinghouses under close supervision.
44. What was the theory asserting that states could invalidate acts of Congress
that exceeded its legislative powers? South Carolina advanced the theory in
1828 in response to an unfavorable federal tariff, but a show of force by
Andrew Jackson, combined with tariff revisions, ended the crisis.
45. Which organization founded in 1826 by Lyman Beecher linked drinking with
poverty, idleness, ill-health, and violence? Its lecturers traveled the country
gaining converts to the cause, and the movement had considerable success,
contributing to a sharp drop in American alcohol consumption.
46. Which political party evolving out of the Democratic Republicans after 1834,
though strongest in the South and West, it embraced Andrew Jackson’s
vision of limited government, expanded political participation for white men,
and the promotion of an ethic of individualism?
47. What appellation is given to the forced westward journey of Cherokees from
their lands in Georgia to present-day Oklahoma in 1838, despite earlier
favorable legal action, the Cherokees endured a grueling 1,200-mile march
overseen by federal troops where nearly a quarter of them died en route.
48. What appellation was attached to a unprecedented religious revival in the
1820s and 1830s that promised access to salvation, though the revival
proved to be a major impetus for reform movements of the era, inspiring
efforts to combat drinking, sexual sin, and slavery?
49. Andrew Jackson enhanced executive power relative to the power of
Congress by using what constitutional right as a major political weapon?
50. Which political party evolved out of the National Republicans after 1834 with
a Northeast power base, supporting federal action to promote commercial
development and generally looked favorably on the reform movements
associated with the Second Great Awakening? Its most notable political
stance was being anti-Jacksonian.
51. What appellation was given to the American practice of manufacturing and
then assembling interchangeable standardized parts, whereupon this practice
spread quickly across American industries and allowed manufacturers to
employ cheap, unskilled workers?
52. What was the Utopian community organized by John Humphrey Noyes in
New York in 1848, whereby his opposition to private property led him to
denounce marriage as the root of the problem? The community embraced
sexual and economic communalism, to the dismay of its mainstream
53. What appellation was given to members of the Church of Jesus Christ of
Latter-Day Saints, founded by Joseph Smith in 1830, though most Americans
deemed them heretics? After Smith’s death at the hands of an angry mob in
1844, Brigham Young moved the people to Utah in 1846.
54. What term was coined in 1845 by journalist John L. O’Sullivan to justify
American expansion, and the concept framed the American conquest of the
West as part of a divine plan?
55. What was an organization dedicated to sending freed slaves and other black
Americans to Liberia in West Africa? Although some African Americans
cooperated with the movement, others campaigned against segregation and
56. What was the 1848 declaration at the first national woman’s rights convention
in the United States, held in New York, and whose document adopted the
style of the Declaration of Independence and demanded equal rights for
women, including the franchise?
57. Pushed by the “Great Compriomiser,” what is the appellation for his program
of building interstate infrastructue often at federal expense?
58. What is essentially a tax on imports, though under the federal Constitution,
exports cannot be taxed?
59. What Idea popularized initially by Alexander Hamilton in debates over the
establishment of a national bank maintained that Congress could enact
anything that was necessary and proper as long as the Constitution did not
explicitly forbid it?
60. What term was used by 1820 to replace “backcountry,” whereby it was
considered an area that was on the advancing edge of American civilization?
61. What Idea adopted by Thomas Jefferson in debates over the establishment
of a national bank maintained that anything that the Constitution did not
explicitly permit should remain outside the scope of government?
62. What description was given to the era of party-less politics during President
James Monroe’s administration, created by the collapse of the Federalists at
the end of the War of 1812?
63. What was the belief that all work in a free society is honorable and that
manual labor is degraded when it is equated with slavery or bondage?
64. What was the 19th-century term for transportation facilities such as roads,
canals, and railroads?
F I N I S (Latin For Finished or Completed)
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