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  You should respond to at least two of your peers by extending, refuting/correcting, or adding additional nuance to their posts. Your responses must be substantive and not just agreeing with someone’s work. You need to add by explaining more, refuting a point or correcting a point.  a minimum of 150 words and one reference with in text citation, one reference for each respond. 

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Discussion 1 George

Introduction 
Teamwork is a significant aspect of health care delivery. With the increasing complexity and specialization of clinical care, healthcare workers have
to learn more complicated methods and procedures to achieve the desired patient outcomes. Teamwork is associated with reduced medical errors and
improve patient safety. Additionally, teamwork reduces staff burnout since a healthcare professional team is responsible for patient welfare (Zajac et al.,
2021). Various strategies are key to ensuring effective teamwork for better patient outcomes. 
 
Strategies for effective teamwork during patient care
Effective communication across staff members of a clinical team increases teamwork efficacy, leading to improved patient outcomes. Working
towards a common goal, effective communication expands the traditional roles of each member to make decisions as a team (Zajac et al., 2021). One
particular strategy that worked for my clinical team is goal setting at the beginning of the scheduled activities so that each member has a clear purpose
for their roles for the day. Several studies also agree that goal setting provides the direction for implementing procedures and coordinated care.
Organizing regular meetings and using digital communication platforms such as emails and WhatsApp groups to convey information relating to patient
care to team members and debate suggestion is key to improving performance and, ultimately, patient outcomes.
Another effective team strategy is collaboration. By definition, health care involves multiple disciplines- nurses, doctors, and health care specialists
in different fields, working together, communicating often, and sharing resources (Zajac et al., 2021). A clinical team is made up of professionals of
different health specialities and responsibilities. Cumulatively, these differences contribute to the overall patient well-being and safety. The different
teams contribute to patient outcomes by understanding the patient presenting illness, asking them probing questions regarding their situation, making
an initial evaluation, discussing, and providing a recommendation based on their findings. 
 
Strategies for ineffective teamwork during patient care
It is common for challenges to arise during teamwork. According to Hendrick et al. (2017), some of the most common challenges that impede a
team’s efforts to improve patient care include a lack of commitment of team members, different individual team members’ goals, and conflict
about how the team members individually relate to the patient. The input of individual members is vital to realizing the overall team’s goal. Therefore,
each member must demonstrate full commitment to the course of the team. Also, if the goals of the individual members do not align with the team’s
goal, then they might be less committed to achieving the team’s goal (Rawlinson et al., 2021). The healthcare team should help the patient understand
that their care is multidisciplinary through effective communication. The team leader should effectively communicate the role of each member that
contributes to the patient outcome to avoid unnecessary conflicts. 
 
Conclusion 
Better patient outcomes and healthcare delivery heavily rely on clinical teamwork. Some of the most effective strategies to ensure positive patient
outcomes include effective communication and interprofessional collaboration. On the flip side, a lack of commitment for individual team members,
differences in the individual and team goals, and conflicts regarding the professionals’’ relationship with the patient can significantly impair effective
healthcare delivery through teamwork. Therefore, team leaders should effectively communicate with their team members and know them personally to
avoid substandard healthcare outcomes. 
 
 References
Hendricks, S., LaMothe, V. J., Kara, A., & Miller, J. (2017). Facilitators and barriers for interprofessional rounding: A qualitative study. Clinical Nurse
Specialist, 31(4), 219-228.
Rawlinson, C., Carron, T., Cohidon, C., Arditi, C., Hong, Q. N., Pluye, P., … & Gilles, I. (2021). An overview of reviews on interprofessional collaboration in
primary care: barriers and facilitators. International Journal of Integrated Care, 21(2).
Zajac, S., Woods, A., Tannenbaum, S., Salas, E., & Holladay, C. L. (2021). Overcoming Challenges to Teamwork in Healthcare: A Team Effectiveness
Framework and Evidence-Based Guidance. Frontiers in Communication, 6, 6. https://doi.org/10.3389/fcomm.2021.606445 

Discussion 2 Daniel

Effectiveness of Clinical Teams
            In the current nursing practice, most healthcare services are delivered through a collaborative team. The implementation of coordinated healthcare delivery in a healthcare facility is complicated because the collaboration involves several healthcare professionals and work processes that are unique to a facility. Grady and Porche (2019) stipulate that for a collaboration team to be effective, all healthcare professionals involved must be aware of their responsibilities, roles, and competencies in relation to those of other medical care professions and organizations. An effective team is also one where the team members, including the patients, communicate and merge their observations, expertise, and decision-making responsibilities to optimize patients’ care (Babiker et al., 2014). Intra-professional and inter-professional collaborative teams can work together to improve service delivery by guiding, motivating, and innovating to provide the excellent delivery of interventions in the institution. According to my experience, this collaborative effort can improve service delivery protocols, create good working relationships, and improve patient feedback after treatment. These collaborations result in patients’ positive regard for duty and the flexibility with which healthcare services are delivered. Besides, collaborations foster a positive work environment, which leads to a culture of collaboration and accountability for meeting the needs of their respective fields of study and profession.
            One of my experiences with clinical team membership was when I worked as a shift coordinator in an emergency department that became a comprehensive stroke center. We did not have much information about ischemic strokes or how to treat them at the time, and I was part of the collaboration team that developed a plan for patients who came in with stroke symptoms that would make them eligible for TPA (Tissue Plasminogen Activator). This team included the neurologist, pharmacist, stroke coordinator, emergency medical system, the Neuro ICU team, and the Emergency Department team. The team had weaknesses and strengths which affected its effectiveness in achieving the objectives for which it was formed. Initially, every team and professionals wanted to work independently and felt they were indispensable and knew what was best for the stroke candidate over the members of other teams. Another struggle was deciding on a time to meet and develop a care plan within a given timeframe set by the hospital administration. Most healthcare professionals were often busy with competing tasks. The team members had to be coerced into dedicating time every week to discuss and develop a plan to facilitate the presentation of these patients by the emergency medical team to their admission to the Neuro ICU.
            Notably, the team had strengths too, that made it effective. Healthcare professionals from every discipline brought their knowledge and skills to the table, which enabled the team to develop a complete program from education to admission of stroke patients. As a shift coordinator, this experience enabled me to understand how each team member can use their expertise and competencies to care for patients. I was impressed with the communication among the team members that facilitated the promptness in developing a care plan for stroke patients. This collaboration is an example of how effectiveness can be achieved in collaboration teams and how interactions can give patients positive experiences.
References
Babiker, A., El Husseini, M., Al Nemri, A., Al Frayh, A., Al Juryyan, N., Faki, M. O., … & Al     Zamil, F. (2014). Health care professional development: Working as a team to improve        patient care. Sudanese journal of paediatrics, 14(2), 9.
Grady, P. A., &Porche, D. (2019). Promoting State-of-the-Art Biobehavioral Approaches in         Symptom Science Research Through Inter-and Intra-Professional        Collaborations. Journal of nursing scholarship: an official publication of Sigma Theta    Tau International Honor Society of Nursing, 51(1), 3.
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